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Loss scaling is a technique to prevent numeric underflow in intermediate gradients when float16 is used. To prevent underflow, the loss is multiplied (or "scaled") by a certain factor called the "loss scale", which causes intermediate gradients to be scaled by the loss scale as well. The final gradients are divided (or "unscaled") by the loss scale to bring them back to their original value.

LossScaleOptimizer wraps another optimizer and applies dynamic loss scaling to it. This loss scale is dynamically updated over time as follows:

  • On any train step, if a nonfinite gradient is encountered, the loss scale is halved, and the train step is skipped.

  • If dynamic_growth_steps have ocurred since the last time the loss scale was updated, and no nonfinite gradients have occurred, the loss scale is doubled.


  initial_scale = 32768,
  dynamic_growth_steps = 2000L,
  name = NULL,
  weight_decay = NULL,
  clipnorm = NULL,
  clipvalue = NULL,
  global_clipnorm = NULL,
  use_ema = NULL,
  ema_momentum = NULL,
  ema_overwrite_frequency = NULL,
  loss_scale_factor = NULL,
  gradient_accumulation_steps = NULL



The keras Optimizer instance to wrap.


Float. The initial loss scale. This scale will be updated during training. It is recommended for this to be a very high number, because a loss scale that is too high gets lowered far more quickly than a loss scale that is too low gets raised.


Int. How often to update the scale upwards. After every dynamic_growth_steps steps with finite gradients, the loss scale is doubled.


For forward/backward compatability.


String. The name to use for momentum accumulator weights created by the optimizer.


Float. If set, weight decay is applied.


Float. If set, the gradient of each weight is individually clipped so that its norm is no higher than this value.


Float. If set, the gradient of each weight is clipped to be no higher than this value.


Float. If set, the gradient of all weights is clipped so that their global norm is no higher than this value.


Boolean, defaults to FALSE. If TRUE, exponential moving average (EMA) is applied. EMA consists of computing an exponential moving average of the weights of the model (as the weight values change after each training batch), and periodically overwriting the weights with their moving average.


Float, defaults to 0.99. Only used if use_ema=TRUE. This is the momentum to use when computing the EMA of the model's weights: new_average = ema_momentum * old_average + (1 - ema_momentum) * current_variable_value.


Int or NULL, defaults to NULL. Only used if use_ema=TRUE. Every ema_overwrite_frequency steps of iterations, we overwrite the model variable by its moving average. If NULL, the optimizer does not overwrite model variables in the middle of training, and you need to explicitly overwrite the variables at the end of training by calling optimizer$finalize_variable_values() (which updates the model variables in-place). When using the built-in fit() training loop, this happens automatically after the last epoch, and you don't need to do anything.


Float or NULL. If a float, the scale factor will be multiplied the loss before computing gradients, and the inverse of the scale factor will be multiplied by the gradients before updating variables. Useful for preventing underflow during mixed precision training. Alternately, optimizer_loss_scale() will automatically set a loss scale factor.


Int or NULL. If an int, model & optimizer variables will not be updated at every step; instead they will be updated every gradient_accumulation_steps steps, using the average value of the gradients since the last update. This is known as "gradient accumulation". This can be useful when your batch size is very small, in order to reduce gradient noise at each update step.


an Optimizer instance